Thursday, 7 July 2016

Walled Towns Bibliography 2014 renumbered 2016

Consolidated working research bibliography of 401 items for walled towns mainly from Academic Adviser's publications to date. 
May 2013 Revised Version – most duplication now eliminated, much further bibliography on individual walled towns could still to be added. Any comments on inaccuracies or possible additions will be welcomed: contact David M Bruce.


Consolidated working research bibliography of 401 items for walled towns mainly from Academic Adviser's publications to date. 
May 2013 Revised Version – most duplication now eliminated, much further bibliography on individual walled towns could still to be added. Any comments on inaccuracies or possible additions will be welcomed: contact David M Bruce.

Walled Towns Bibliography May 2013, renumbered July 2016


1.             Abu El-Haj, N.L. (1995) Excavating the Land, Creating the Homeland: Archaeology, the state, and the making of history in modern Jewish nationalism. PhD Thesis, Duje University. 
2.             Aguilo, E., Sastre, A. and Bardolet, E. (1991) La Despesa Turística. Palma de Mallorca: Govern Balear/Consellería d’Economia i Hisenda/Consellería de Turisme. 
3.             Alcudia , 2000, www http://www.alcudia.net/planes/angles/3.ecoturisme/eco_a.htm, Accessed August 2000. 
4.             Alcúdia Council (1993,1994) Municipal records (in Catalan), Council of Alcúdia, Mallorca. 
5.             Alcúdia Council (1994) Declaration: Alcúdia Municipi Ecoturístic, Council of Alcúdia, Mallorca http://www.alcudia.net/planes/angles/3.ecoturisme/eco_a.htm, accessed August 2000 [not current]. 
6.             Alcúdia Council (2000) Alcúdia 2020 Strategic Plan (in Catalan) Alcúdia Council, Mallorca
7.             Alcúdia, Commune of (1983) Symposium de Arqueologia – Pollentia y la Romanizacion de las Baleares, Alcúdia, Mallorca. 
8.             Alcúdia, Commune of (1992) Letter supporting bid for European funding (see European Commission, 1992). 
9.             Alkhoven, P. (1999). The Changing Image of the City: A Study of the Transformation of the Townscape using Computer-Aided Architectural Design and Visualization Techniques. A Case study: Heusden. PhD Thesis, University of Utrecht, . 
10.          Amiel, C., Martinat, J., Piniès, J., Poisson, O., Satgé, P. & Signoles, A. (2000) De la Place Forte au Monument: La Restauration de la Cité de Carcassonne au XIXe Siècle. Paris: Éditions du Patrimoine,. 
11.          Amiran, D.H.K., Shachar, A. & Kimhi, I (eds) (1973) Urban Geography of Jerusalem: a companion to the atlas of Jerusalem. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter. 
12.          Anon (William Wordsworth) 1810 Directions and information for the tourist...[introduction to] Select views in Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Lancashire Rev Joseph Wilkinson, Ackermann, London . 
13.          Ap, J. (1990) Residents’ perception: research on the social impacts of tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 17: 610–16. 
14.          ARCHWAY 2008 Good Practice Guides for the access and regeneration of historic walled towns: (1) Conservation an, Protection and Enhancement, (2) Transport, (3) Spatial Planning, (4) Tourism Development and Management, (5) Cultural Heritage Management.. (EC INTERREG IIIc Award No. 3W0083N) http://www.archway-interreg.com (accessed 20/11/2008) Chester(content now only available through walled towns research website of Academic Adviser to the project) ARCHWAY Piran, Valletta, Lucca, den Bosch, La Guardia etc. Chester. 
15.          Armstrong, Karen,1996, A History of Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths, Harper Collins,. 
16.          Arriva 2009 Freedom of Wales flexi-pass Arriva Trains Wales Cardiff UK. 
17.          Ashworth G.J. & Bruce D.M.. 2009 'Town walls, walled towns and tourism: paradoxes and paradigms', Journal of Heritage Tourism, 4: 4, 299 — 313. 
18.          Ashworth G.J. (1993) Walls, towns and tourists: a marketing approach. Walled Towns Friendship Circle 3rd Symposium Loches, France . 
19.          Ashworth G.J. (2003) Heritage, Identity and Places: for Tourists and Host Communities, in Singh, S.; Timothy, D.J.; Dowling R.K. (eds) Tourism in Destination Communities (79-97) Wallingford: CABI . 
20.          Ashworth G.J. and Tunbridge J.E (2004) Malta makeover: prospects for the re-alignment of heritage, tourism and development. URSI report 304, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, Groningen . 
21.          Ashworth G.J. and Tunbridge J.E.,(1990) The Tourist-Historic City, Belhaven (Pinter). 
22.          Ashworth G.J. and Voogd.H.,1992 ,Selling the City ,Belhaven Press ,. 
23.          Ashworth G.J.,1994,in Ashworth G.J. and Larkham P.J.(Ed),1994,Building a New Heritage: Tourism culture and identity in the new Europe, Routledge,. 
24.          Ashworth, G.J. & M.J.Kuipers (2002) Managing the heritage of fortress towns: the cases of Naarden and Bourtange. In Phelps. A., G.J.Ashworth and B.O.H.Johansson (eds) The construction of built heritage (pp. 131-43) Aldershot: Ashgate. 
25.          Ashworth, G.J. & Tunbridge, J.E. (2001) The Tourist-Historic City: Retrospect and Prospect of Managing the Heritage City. London: Belhaven. 
26.          Ashworth, G.J. & Tunbridge, J.E. The Tourist-Historic City: Retrospect and Prospect of Managing the Heritage City. London: Belhaven, 1990. 
27.          Ashworth, G.J. & Tunbridge, J.E. The Tourist-Historic City: Retrospect and Prospect of Managing the Heritage City. London: Belhaven, 1990/2000. 
28.          Ashworth, G.J. (1991) War and the City London: Routledge . 
29.          Ashworth, G.J. (2002) Heritage in economic regeneration: the case of Nieuwschans In Phelps. A., G.J.Ashworth & B.O.H.Johansson (eds) The Construction of Built Heritage (pp163-74) Aldershot: Ashgate. . 
30.          Ashworth,G.J & R.Hartmann (eds) (2005) Horror and human tragedy revisited New York: Cognizant. 
31.          Austin, D. ‘Devolution, castles and Welsh identity.’ British Archaeology 29 (1997). 
33.          Baalman, D. ‘The Heritage Industry is going at full blast’. Architecture in the Netherlands, Yearbook (1988/1989), 29-32. 
34.          Bacon F. 1625/1859 Essay XVIII On Travel in The essays: or, Counsels civil and moral with A table of the colours of good and evil Markby edn 1859 Parker, London. 
35.          Bacon, M. (1991) Making walled towns successful, First Symposium of the Walled Towns Friendship Circle in Cardiff. 
36.          Baedeker K Belgique et Hollande 1910:150 Karl Baedeker Leipzig for Ghent. 
37.          Baedeker K, Northern Germany Excluding the Rhineland. 
38.          Baedeker K, Northern Italy, Handbook for Travellers 1913, p. 530. 
39.          Baedeker K. 1911, Austro-Hungary Baedeker Leipzig p.280. 
40.          Baedeker, K. (1844) Schweiz. Handbüchlein für reisende, nach eigener Anschauung und den besten Hülfsquellen bearbeitet [Switzerland: Little handbook for travellers, produced from personal observation and the best sources], 1st edn. Karl Baedeker, Coblenz Prussia. (Germany). 
41.          Baedeker, K. (1849) Rheinreise von Basel bis Düsseldorf mit Ausflügen in das Elsass und die Rheinpfalz, das Murg-und Neckerthal, an die Bergstrasse, in den Odenwald und Taunus, in das Nahe-,Lahn-, Ahr-, Roer-, Wupper- und Ruhrthal und nach Aachen, 6th edn. Karl Baedeker, Coblenz, Prussia Germany (Hinrichsen D5). 
42.          Baedeker, K. (1851) Schweiz, 3rd edn. Karl Baedeker, Coblenz, Prussia. Germany 
43.          Baedeker, K. (1861) Rhine, from Switzerland to Holland. The Black Forest, Vosges, Haardt, Odenwald, Taunus, Eifel, Seven Mountains, Nahe, Lahn, Moselle, Ahr, Wupper, and Ruhr, 1st English edn. Karl Baedeker, Coblenz, Prussia. Germany (Hinrichsen E1). 
44.          Baedeker, K. (1893) Griechenland, 3rd edn. Karl Baedeker, Leipzig, Germany . 
45.          Baedeker, K. (1897) Great Britain 4th edn. Karl Baedeker, Leipzig, Germany . 
46.          Baedeker, K. (1904) Italy, second part: Central Italy and Rome, 14th edn. Leipzig, Germany . 
47.          Baedeker, K. (1906) Grossbritannien: England (ausser London), Wales, Schottland und Irland , 4th edn. Leipzig, Germany . 
48.          Baedeker, K. (1907) Northern Italy: Handbook for Travellers. Leipzig: Karl Baedeker. 
49.          Baedeker, K. (1908) Griechenland [Greece],?? 4th edn, Leipzig Germany. 
50.          Baedeker, K. (1909a) Italy from the Alps to Naples, 2nd edn. Leipzig, Germany . 
51.          Baedeker, K. (1909b) Switzerland and the adjacent portions of Italy, Savoy, and Tyrol, 23rd edn. Leipzig, Germany . 
52.          Baedeker, K. (1909c) Italie Centrale Rome, 14th edn. Leipzig, Germany . 
53.          Baedeker, K. (1910) Southern Germany (Wurtemberg and Bavaria), 11th edn. Leipzig, Germany . 
54.          Baedeker, K. (1911a) The Mediterranean Seaports and Sea Routes, including Madeira, the Canary Islands, the Coast of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia: Handbook for Travellers. Leipzig, Germany . 
55.          Baedeker, K. (1911b) Unteritalien, Sizilien, Sardinien, Malta, Korfu. Handbuch für Reisende [Southern Italy], 15th edn. Leipzig, Germany . 
56.          Baedeker, K. (1911c) Eastern Alps including the Bavarian Highlands, Tyrol, Salzburg, Upper and Lower Austria, Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola, 12th edn. Leipzig, Germany. 
57.          Baedeker, K. (1911d) Austria Hungary with excursions to Cetinje, Belgrade, and Bucharest, 11th edn. Leipzig, Germany. 
58.          Baedeker, K. (1913) Northern Italy including Leghorn, Florence, Ravenna and routes through France, Switzerland, and Austria, 14th edn. Leipzig, Germany. 
59.          Baedeker, K. (1914) Russia with Teheran, Port Arthur, and Peking, 1st edn. Leipzig, Germany. 
60.          Baedeker, K. (1929) Egypt and the Sudan, 8th edn. Leipzig, Germany. 
61.          Baedeker, K. (1943) Generalgouvernment [German occupied Poland], 1st edn. Leipzig, Germany. 
62.          Baedeker, K. Northern Germany Excluding the Rhineland: Handbook for Travellers. Leipzig: Karl Baedeker, 1913. 
63.          Baedeker, K.1928, Dalmatien (in German) Dalmatien... 
64.          Bardolet, E. (1990) Demanda turística y marketing turístico. Papeles de Economía Española, no. 8. Bardolet, E., Aguilo, E., Sastre, A. and Sastre, F. (1990) Estudio sobre las Caracteristicas del Turismo de la Playa de Palma (Mallorca). Palma: Camar Oficel De Comercio, Industria y Navegacion de Mallorca, Ibiza y Formentera. . 
65.          Barrett P,1995, The Walled Towns of Wales and Chester, Wales Tourist Board, Cardiff. 
66.          Batle, F., Serra Cantallops, A. and Salas, J. (1994) Sustainable Tourism in a Walled Town: Report to the Commune of Alcúdia. Palma: UiB University of the Balearics, Official School of Tourism. . 
67.          BBC World Service 1997. 'Europe Today' 31Oct 1997'. 
68.          Beare E. (Ed) (2008) 501 Must-Visit Cities. Bounty/Octopus, London ;Lonely Planet 2006 The City Book Lonely Planet Melbourne. 
69.          Benevolo Leonardo (trans. from Italian by Carl Ipsen),1993, The European City, (in the series The Making Of Europe) Laterza, Blackwell et al. ,Rome, Oxford et al. 
70.          Beresford, M.W. New Towns of the Middle Ages: Town Plantation in England, Wales and Gascony. London: Lutterworth, 1967. 
71.          Betjeman John,1970, Ghastly Good Taste, Anthony Blond Ltd. 
72.          Blaeuw,1620, Europa Recens Descripta, Amsterdam, (facsimile bought 1997). 
73.          Boissevan, Jeremy (1994) Discontent in Mdina. In Focus (Tourism Concern), Summer: 12. . 
74.          Boniface P & Fowler P.J.,1993, Heritage and Tourism in the Global Village,Routledge,. 
75.          Boniface P. 1995 Managing Quality Tourism Routledge. 
76.          Borg
77.          Boswell J. (ed by Pottle, F.) (1953) Boswell on the Grand Tour: Germany and Switzerland. 
78.          Bowden, W., Hodges, R. & Lako, K. Byzantine Butrint: Excavations and Surveys 1994–1999. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2004. 
79.          Boyd, S.W., (2002) Cultural and heritage tourism in Canada: opportunities, principles and challenges Tourism and Hospitality Research 3 (3), 211-233. 
80.          Bradshaw 1972 August 1914 Continental Guide [facsimile edition], David & Charles Newton Abbot UK. 
81.          Brandi K (translated by C.V. Wedgwood), 1939, 'Charles V' Jonathon Cape. 
82.          Braque George,1910 "contacte visuelle"-a tourist [uninvolved],"contacte tactile"-an artilleryman, [involved], Letter, seen in Bristol City Museum exhibition 1991. 
83.          Braudel Ferdnand (2nd Ed. 1966 translated Sian Phillips), 1972/73 [1949], 'The Mediterranean And The Mediterranean World In The Time Of Phillip II' 2 Vols., Librarie Armond Colin, ,Paris (Translation Collins,London. 
84.          Braun and Hogenberg Civitates Orbis Terrarum or ‘Cities of the World’. Skelton R.A.(Ed.) (1966) 'The Towns of the World': Braun and Hogenberg's Civitates Orbis Terrarum 1572-1618 (Facsimile), The World Publishing Company. Cleveland, Ohio (three volumes); Fuessel S (Ed) (2008) Braun and Hogenberg Cities of the World: complete edition of the colour plates 1572-1617 Taschen Cologne. Each has a full scholarly introduction. 
85.          Braun G & Hogenberg F (1572-1617) Civitates Orbis Terrarum (Cities of the World) Cologne. 
86.          Braun’s introduction to the 1581 3rd Volume Civitates Orbis Terrarum (Cities of the World) Cologne. 
87.          Brezovec and Bruce 2008 available at www.archway-interreg.com (accessed 25-Aug-2010). 
88.          Brigulgio L., Butler R., Harrison D. and Leal Filho W. (1996) Sustainable Tourism in Islands and Small States Case Studies London: Pinter. 
89.          Brindle, S. ‘Ancient monument casework in London.’ Greater London Archaeology Advisory Service Annual Review (April 2002-March 2003), 11-12. 
90.          Bristol City Museum in its caption in the City Museum, Queen Street, Bristol (observed 10th April 2010). 
91.          Brochures: Chester, La Granja Mallorca, Londonderry, Waterford, Wexford, Drogheda,Drosendorf, Noerdlingen, Conwy, Visby, Lugo, Chichester, Thessalonika, Le Quesnoy, Naarden, Elvas, Valenca, Ibiza, Valletta, Guimares, Olivenza, Badajoz, Tuy, Chepstow, Ludlow, Berwick, Carlisle, Moncao, Salvatierra, Avila, Nocera, Montefalco, Spello, Perugia, Assisi, Alcúdia, Cuidadella, Jerusalem, Cracow, Banska Stiavnica,. 
92.          Bruce D & Serra Cantelops A (1993) The Walled Town of Alcudia as a Focus for Alternative Tourism to Mallorca. Conference proceedings, Sustainable Tourism on Islands and Small States, Malta. To be published by Mansell, 1995. 
93.          Bruce D and Collins S 1993/5 A Guide to the Walled Towns of Europe Walled Towns Friendship Circle, Tenby (2nd Edition forthcoming). 
94.          Bruce D. (1994) Tourism in Walled Towns, Tourism Management Vol 15 no. 3 pp. 228-30. 
95.          Bruce D. 2008 appendix in Brezovec and Bruce 2008 available at www.archway-interreg.com (accessed 25-Aug-2010). 
96.          Bruce D. and Marion Jackson 'Measuring Sustainability in Tourism - The lessons of Chepstow for European walled towns'. Leisure Studies Association International Conference; Leisure in Different Worlds. Loughborough, 1993. 
97.          Bruce D. and Toni Serra Cantallops 'The walled town of Alcudia as a focus for an alternative tourism in Mallorca.' International Conference on Sustainable Tourism in Islands and Small States, Malta 1994. 
98.          Bruce D. M. (2004) Piran, establishing a sustainable “gem city”. In Holloway, J.C. Marketing for Tourism. (pp.446-454) London: Pitman.. 
99.          Bruce D. M. (2007) Presentation to Archway Legacy Conference, Chester June 2007. 
100.        Bruce D. M. (2012) The Nineteenth Century ‘Golden Age’ of Cultural Tourism Chapter 1 in Smith M. & Richards G.(eds) The Routledge Handbook of Cultural Tourism Routledge NOTE final draft available from dnembruce@btinternet.com, contains a case study about the walled town of San Giminignano – full Handbook from link above 420 pages, price £120 
101.        Bruce D.M (1993) A Handbook of Good Practice for Sustainable Tourism in Walled Towns, Report to the European Commission DGXXIII (Tourism Unit) pp70 +appendices. 
102.        Bruce D.M. (1997), Towards a sustainability indicator for tourism transport, ‘Interdisciplinary Strands’ Journal of the Interdisciplinary Research Association No7 autumn, 4-8. . 
103.        Bruce D.M. (1998) Tourism, Heritage and Local Pride, in Swarbrooke J.(Ed) Heritage, Culture and Community, ATLAS, Tilburg, 3-20. 
104.        Bruce D.M. 2010 p95 Chapter 7 Baedeker: the perceived ‘inventor’ of the formal guidebook, a bible for travellers in the 19th century, in Giants of Tourism Butler and Russell Eds CABI Wallingford. 
105.        Bruce D.M. and Jackson M.J. (1999) Measuring Sustainability in Tourism - Lessons from a study of Chepstow for other European walled towns, in Foley M., McGillivray D., McPherson G. (Eds.), Leisure, Tourism and Environment: Sustainability and Environmental Policies, LSA Publication No.50 (Part 1), Brighton, 141-155. 
106.        Bruce D.M. and Marion Jackson (1993) 'Measuring Sustainability in Tourism - The lessons of Chepstow for European walled towns'. Leisure Studies Association International Conference; Leisure in Different Worlds. Loughborough, . 
107.        Bruce D.M. and Serra Cantallops A. (1996), The walled town of Alcúdia as a focus for an alternative tourism in Mallorca, in Briguglio L., Butler R., Harrison D. and Leal Filho W. (Eds.), Sustainable Tourism in Islands and Small States: Vol. II Case Studies, Pinter, London, 241-261. . 
108.        Bruce D.M. and Toni Serra Cantallops (1993) 'The walled town of Alcudia as a focus for an alternative tourism in Mallorca.' International Conference on Sustainable Tourism in Islands and Small States, Malta. 
109.        Bruce D.M.(1995), Sustainable tourism in Chepstow and Conwy, Context: The Journal of the Association of Conservation Officers No 46, June. 13-14. 
110.        Bruce D.M., Collins S., Laban,P. and Lloyd F. (1993) A Handbook of Good Practice for Sustainable Tourism in Walled Towns - Report to European Commission, Directorate General XXIII (Tourism) 92/C 51/16 (with appendices), Walled Towns Friendship Circle, Tenby. 
111.        Bruce et al. (META-) 2001. 
112.        Bruce, D., Jackson, M.J. and Hathway, A. (1990, 1992, 1993) Monitoring the Local Enterprise and Development (LEAD) Initiative in Chepstow. Annual Reports, Monmouth Borough Council, Pontypool. . 
113.        Bruce, D.M. and Creighton O. (2006) Contested Identities: the dissonant heritage of European Town Walls and Walled Towns. International Journal of Heritage Studies 13(3), 234-54 . 
114.        Bruce, D.M., Jackson, M. and Serra Cantallops, A. (2001)‘PREPARe: a model to aid the development of policies for less unsustainable tourism in historic towns.’ Tourism and Hospitality Research: the Surrey Quarterly Review 3.1 : 21-36. . 
115.        BSI, (1992), BS 7750:1992 Environmental Standard British Standards Institute, Milton Keynes. 
116.        Burton, R. (1995) Travel Geography (2nd edn). London: Pitman. . 
117.        Butler R. (1997) The concept of carrying capacity for tourist destinations: dead or merely buried, in Cooper C. and Wanhill S.(Eds.) Tourist Development: Environmental and Community Issues, Wiley, Chichester, 11-21. 
118.        Butler R. (1998) Sustainable Tourism: Looking Backwards in order to Progress? in Hall, C.M. and Lew, A.A. (Eds.), Sustainable Tourism: A Geographical Perspective, Longman, London, 25-34. 
119.        Butler, R.W. (1994) Alternative tourism: the thin end of the wedge. In V.L. Smithand W.R. Eadington (eds), Tourism Alternatives. Chichester: Wiley and the International Academy for the Study of Tourism (39–46). . 
120.        Buzzard J 1993 The Beaten Track: European Tourism, Literature, and the Ways to Culture, 1800-1918 Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK. 
121.        Canestrelli, F. and Costa, P. (1991) Tourist carrying capacity: a fuzzy approach. Annals of Tourism Research, 18: 295–311. . 
122.        Carr E.H.,1961,"What is History?",Macmillan,. 
123.        Castle J. (2000) The Case Against ISO 9000 by John Seddon - A Review , BBS Teaching and Research Review- An Electronic Publication http://www.uwe.ac.uk/bbs/trr/Is2-cont.htm accessed 30th June 2000 . 
124.        Cavafy P.C. (ed. Sharon A.) (2008) ‘The Barbarians’ in The Selected Poems of Cavafy, Penguin Modern Classics Poetry. Harmonsworth: Penguin, . 
125.        Centre Etudes des Bastides, see http://etudebastides.ifrance.com/; . 
126.        Chapman, H., Hall, J. and Marsh, G. 1985.The London Wall Walk. London: Museum of London, . 
127.        Chester City Council 1993 A Strategic Framework for Chester's Culture The Chester Action Programme, Chester City Council . 
128.        Chester, see http://www.bwpics.co.uk/chester.html
129.        Childs, J. (1997), ‘A short history of the military use of land in peacetime.’ War in History 4.1 81-103. 
130.        Clarke, J., (1997) A Framework of Approaches to Sustainable Tourism, Journal of Sustainable Tourism 5(3), 224-233. . 
131.        Cm 2674 (1994) Eighteenth Report Transport and the Environment (Houghton) RCED (Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution) The Stationary Office, London. . 
132.        Cm 2674 1994,Cm 3950 1998 The negative impacts of road and air transport are well documented () . 
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134.        Cm 4014, (1998), Modern Local Government: in touch with the people, DETR UK Government, The Stationery Office, London. 
135.        Cohen-Hattab, K. ‘Historical research and tourism analysis: the case of the tourist-historic city of Jerusalem’. Tourism Geographies 6.3 (2004), 279-302. 
136.        Colchester, see http://www.camulos.com/virtual/townwall2.htm
137.        Colley,1997,Review of "The Heritage Crusade", Times Literary Supplement,. 
138.        Collins S and Bruce D.,1993,The Walled Towns of Europe, Walled Towns Friendship Circle,Tenby, Wales,. 
139.        Collins S. 1993 'A Guide to the Walled Towns of Europe' 1st Year Book of the WTFC. 3rd WTFC Symposium Loches. 
140.        Collins S. 'A Guide to the Walled Towns of Europe' 1st Year Book of the WTFC. 3rd WTFC Symposium Loches France 1993. This study was referred to (in connection with Conwy) in R. Elwyn Owen, Stephen F. Witt and Susan Gammon 'Sustainable tourism development in Wales' Tourism Management Vol 14.6 pp463-474 1993. 
141.        Costa Georgiou 'Consultation the key as City [York] faces upto Challenge' Planning no935 13 Sept.1991. 
142.        Costa Ramon,1961/1985,Triple Murada- Ibiza,Ibiza, Spain,. 
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145.        Creighton, O.H. and Higham, R.A. (2005) Medieval Town Walls: An Archaeology and Social History of Urban Defence. Stroud: Tempus,. 
146.        Creighton, O.H. and Higham, R.A. ‘Journey of discovery: Conwy’. BBC History Magazine 6.6, 2005: 82-83. 
147.        Cropper E. 1829 letter about Manchester-Liverpool railway. Unpublished MS in collection of DMB. 
148.        Cuddon J.A 1968; 1986 The Companion Guide to Jugoslavia 1st edn Collins London. 
149.        CWAC The website has been taken down by Cheshire West and Chester Council, the successor body to the City of Chester. However all the content is available on application via www.walledtownsresearch.org . 
150.        Daniell C,1991,A Traveller's History of England, The Windrush Press, Gloucestershire, UK,. 
151.        Dann G (1977) Anomie, Ego‑Enhancement and Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research IV/4 , 184‑194. 
152.        Dann, G. (2005) ‘Children of the dark’ In Ashworth,G.J & R.Hartmann (eds) Horror and human tragedy revisited. (pp 233-52) New York: Cognizant . 
153.        DCMS (1999) Tomorrow's Tourism DCMS, London. 
154.        DCMS (Department of Culture, Media and Sport) (1998) Towards Sustainable Tourism Consultation Paper, DCMS, The Stationary Office, London. 
155.        Denman part-funded by the European Commission Directorate General XXIII (Tourism) Project 92/C 51/16 (reported in Denman 1995). 
156.        Denman, R.(1995) Review of ‘A handbook of good practice for sustainable tourism in walled towns’, in Alpenforschungsinstitut gemn. GmbH Tourism and the Environment in Europe -an introduction along with reports on some European projects in tourism. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg. 
157.        Department of the Environment 1990 Planning Policy Guidance 16: Archaeology and Planning, London: Department of the Environment,. 
158.        Devereux C. (1999) The Little Black Book – Assessing cross-cultural service competence in travel and tourism work placements, Devereux & Co, UK. 
159.        Diario de Mallorca (1995) Alcúdia, primer municipio en adaptarse al POOT, 18 January: 14. . 
160.        Dickenson R 1992 Tourism and the Environment: the European Initiative2nd WTFC Symposium, Cittadella (Veneto, Italy). 
161.        Dingle, P. (1993) The Green Audit Kit. Totnes, UK: South Devon Green Tourism Initiative. . 
162.        DoE/DoT (UK) (1993) Reducing Transport Emissions Through Planning. London: . 
163.        Doxey, G.V. (1975) A causation theory of visitor-resident irritants: methodology and research inferences. In The Impact of Tourism, Proceedings of the sixth annual Conference of the Travel Research Association. San Diego, TRA (195–8). . 
164.        Dresser M (2001) Slavery Obscured: The Social History of the Slave Trade in an English Provincial Port [Bristol] Continuum . 
165.        Durand, H., Gouirand, P. and Spindler, J. (1994) Economie et Politique du Tourisme.Paris: Librarie Générale de Droit et de Jurisprudence. . 
166.        EC (European Commission) (1993) The European Eco-Audit RegulationOffice of European Publications, Luxembourg. 
167.        EC,1996,INTEREG,OJ.,Brussels,. 
168.        EHTF (English Historic Towns Forum) (1994) Visitor ManagementEHTF, Bristol. 
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171.        Elliott J. (1997) Tourism: politics and public sector managementRoutledge, London. 
172.        Else D 2003 The Lonely Planet Britain Lonely Planet Publications London . 
173.        Else D 2009 The Lonely Planet England Lonely Planet Publications London . 
174.        Elwyn Owen R, Stephen F. Witt and Susan Gammon 'Sustainable tourism development in Wales' Tourism Management Vol 14.6 pp463-474 . 
175.        ESDP 1999. 
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DMB July 2016